Fixture functions using “yield” / context manager integration

New in version 2.4.

pytest-2.4 allows fixture functions to seamlessly use a yield instead of a return statement to provide a fixture value while otherwise fully supporting all other fixture features.


“yielding” fixture values is an experimental feature and its exact declaration may change later but earliest in a 2.5 release. You can thus safely use this feature in the 2.4 series but may need to adapt later. Test functions themselves will not need to change (as a general feature, they are ignorant of how fixtures are setup).

Let’s look at a simple standalone-example using the new yield syntax:

# content of

import pytest

def passwd():
    print ("\nsetup before yield")
    f = open("/etc/passwd")
    yield f.readlines()
    print ("teardown after yield")

def test_has_lines(passwd):
    print ("test called")
    assert passwd

In contrast to finalization through registering callbacks, our fixture function used a yield statement to provide the lines of the /etc/passwd file. The code after the yield statement serves as the teardown code, avoiding the indirection of registering a teardown callback function.

Let’s run it with output capturing disabled:

$ py.test -q -s

setup before yield
test called
.teardown after yield

1 passed in 0.01 seconds

We can also seamlessly use the new syntax with with statements. Let’s simplify the above passwd fixture:

# content of

import pytest

def passwd():
    with open("/etc/passwd") as f:
        yield f.readlines()

def test_has_lines(passwd):
    assert len(passwd) >= 1

The file f will be closed after the test finished execution because the Python file object supports finalization when the with statement ends.

Note that the new syntax is fully integrated with using scope, params and other fixture features. Changing existing fixture functions to use yield is thus straight forward.

Discussion and future considerations / feedback

The yield-syntax has been discussed by pytest users extensively. In general, the advantages of the using a yield fixture syntax are:

  • easy provision of fixtures in conjunction with context managers.
  • no need to register a callback, providing for more synchronous control flow in the fixture function. Also there is no need to accept the request object into the fixture function just for providing finalization code.

However, there are also limitations or foreseeable irritations:

  • usually yield is used for producing multiple values. But fixture functions can only yield exactly one value. Yielding a second fixture value will get you an error. It’s possible we can evolve pytest to allow for producing multiple values as an alternative to current parametrization. For now, you can just use the normal fixture parametrization mechanisms together with yield-style fixtures.
  • the yield syntax is similar to what contextlib.contextmanager() decorated functions provide. With pytest fixture functions, the “after yield” part will always be invoked, independently from the exception status of the test function which uses the fixture. The pytest behaviour makes sense if you consider that many different test functions might use a module or session scoped fixture. Some test functions might raise exceptions and others not, so how could pytest re-raise a single exception at the yield point in the fixture function?
  • lastly yield introduces more than one way to write fixture functions, so what’s the obvious way to a newcomer? Newcomers reading the docs will see feature examples using the return style so should use that, if in doubt. Others can start experimenting with writing yield-style fixtures and possibly help evolving them further.

If you want to feedback or participate in the ongoing discussion, please join our Contact channels. you are most welcome.